What is Diabetes Mellitus: Getting to Know the Condition
Diabetes mellitus is a kind of metabolic disease that is brought about by either the insufficient production of insulin or the inability of the body to respond to the insulin formed within the system.
In response to this, the body also produces symptoms of polyuria or frequent urination, polyphagia or increased hunger and polydipsia or increased thirst. Read on and get to know what is diabetes mellitus and the underlying processes that produce such conditions.
So what is diabetes mellitus exactly?
For us to know what is diabetes mellitus and to fully understand the condition, we must discuss the different types of diabetes mellitus.
The disease can be classified into three different categories: the type 1, type 2 and the gestational diabetes.
What is diabetes mellitus type 1?
Diabetes mellitus type 1 is caused by the loss of beta cells found in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.
Beta cells primarily produce insulin and hence, their loss will lead to huge insulin deficiencies in the body.
In most cases, the loss of the beta cells is caused by an autoimmune attack mediated by the body’s own T-cells.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus makes up 10% of all the diabetes mellitus cases in Europe and in North America.
Up until today, there have been no preventive measures found for disease. Most of the patients who acquire this type of diabetes are found in the younger populations. Because of this, Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also now known as the juvenile diabetes.
What is diabetes mellitus type 2?
Another type of diabetes mellitus is the type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is generally characterized by the body’s resistance to insulin. This is primarily attributed to the loss of certain insulin receptors in the tissues that are supposed to mediate the entrance of insulin into the body’s cells.
This particular kind of diabetes is the most common kind that afflicts most of the reported cases of the disease. Type 2 diabetes usually leads to hyperglycemia which can be tre
ated by a series of medications that can either improve the body’s insulin sensitivity or improve the liver’s production of insulin in the system.
The last major category of diabetes mellitus is the gestational diabetes. This type of diabetes commonly occurs in pregnant women and may disappear or even progress right after delivery. Gestational diabetes generally manifests the same kind of complication found in type 2 diabetes.
Just like in type 2 diabetes, the body also exhibits a resistance to insulin and can sometimes produce insufficient amounts of the substance as well. This kind of diabetes is fully treatable but may require very close monitoring.
Diabetes Mellitus: What is gestational diabetes?
Gestational diabetes can have damaging effects to both the mother and the unborn baby.
Mothers who have untreated gestational diabetes may give birth to babies with macrosomia or high birth weight, congenital heart and nervous system anomalies, respiratory disease syndrome and even malformations of the skeletal muscles.
In most cases, pregnant women who have gestational diabetes are induced during labor or they are recommended to go through a caesarean section to prevent further complications during delivery.
Knowing such things about the disease is very important since it can give you a better understanding of what is diabetes mellitus and the proper steps that are needed to be taken for treatment.